Click Here for ProBiotic Medicinal Mushroom Products

Medicinal Mushrooms - Readings and References

Fungi, Medicine & Good Health - Nutraceuticals
Cordyceps, Grifola, Maitake, Lentinula, Shiitake, Ganoderma, Reishi, Ling Zhi, Tremella, Silver Ear, Pleurotus
Are They Effective Against Hepatitis, Cancer, AIDS, Colds & Flu and Help Promote Good Health & Libido?

"War," said Faust, "is universal - so implicit in nature that, indeed, without it life would not be possible. You doubt me?. I assure you that even fungi fight wars, in the soil beneath your feet. They battle each other for territory, for dominance, for room to grow. Which ancient combat has been going on so long that the fungi have learned to create weapons. This golden dew is one such, a chemical poison lethal to its rivals. By good fortune it is also lethal to our enemy."

From: Jack Faust. by Swanwick, Michael. Avon Books, 1997.

Page Index: You may scroll down the page or click on a subject to move there

Click here for Alternative Medicine: Expanding Medical Horizons (NIH)

Click here for Summary Table: Some TCM and Modern Uses of Mushroom Products

Click here for over 410 Research Papers on Medicinal Mushrooms

Click here for Books on Nutraceuticals and the Medicinal Properties of Mushrooms


Informative & Popular Articles on Mushrooms & Health:

  1. Click Here for: Mushrooms and Health - On Line Article
  2. Chang R, 1996. Functional properties of edible mushrooms. Nutr Rev 54(11), S91-S93
  3. Chilton, J. 1993. What are the health benefits of mushrooms? Let's Live, Dec., pp. 24-29.
  4. Dharmananda, S., 1988. Medicinal Mushrooms. Bestways Magazine, July, pp. 54-58.
  5. Hobbs, C. 1997. Overcoming Chronic Fatigue (Traditional remedies for a modern disease). Veggie Life, Jan. Vol 5: #5, pp. 56-59.
  6. Jones, 1997. An ancient Chinese secret promotes longevity and endurance. Healthy & Natural Journal, vol. 3, issue 3, pp. 90-93.
  7. Law, David, 1996. Fungi as a platform for new medicine. Mushroom World, December, 1996.
  8. McDougall, H. 1998. Detoxification. Veggie Life, March, pp 30 - 35.
  9. Mohammed, Gina, 2012.   Boost Your Immunity with Gourmet Mushrooms - Shiitake, Maitake and Reishi pack potent disease-fighting compounds.  The Herb Companion   August/September 2012
  10. Smith, C. 1994. Gold medal herbs. Natural Health May/June, pp. 85-87
  11. Smith, J,., Rowan, N., Sullivan, R. 2001.  Medicinal mushrooms: their therapeutic properties and current medical usage with special emphasis on cancer treatments.  Click Here for monograph.
  12. Shirota, M, 1996. What You Should Know About Medicinal Mushrooms. Explore! vol. 7, issue 2, pp. 48-52.
  13. Stanislaus, C., 1996. Ling zhi- medicine of kings. New Editions Health World, pp. 38-41.
  14. Steinman, D., 1995. Potent protectors. Natural Health, Nov-Dec. pp. 92-95; 134-135.
  15. Weil, A. 1993. Boost immunity with mushrooms. Natural Health, May-June, pp. 12-16.
  16. Wiley, C. 1991. The medicinal side of mushrooms. Vegetarian Times, March 1991.

 Click Here for Gourmet Mushroom Products

Some Research Papers on Mushrooms and Health

Click here To Return to the Top of the Page

  1. Adachi, K., Nanba, H., Otsuka, M., and Kuroda, H. 1988. Blood Pressure Lowering Activity Present in the Fruit Body of Grifola frondosa (Maitake), Chem. Phann. Bull. 36:1000-1006.
  2. Adachi, K., Nanba, H., and Kuroda, H. 1987. Potentiation of Host-Mediated Antitumor Activity in Mice by Beta-glucan Obtained from Grifola frondosa (Maitake), Chem. Pharm. Bull. 35;262-270.
  3. Adavkaverg, J.E. & R.L. Gilbertson, 1986. Mycologia 78: 694-705
  4. ___, 1987. Vegetative incompatibility between intraspecfic pairings of Ganoderma lucidium
  5. Akiyama, Y. et al. 1981. Immunological characteristics of anti-tumor polysaccharides lentinan and its analogues, as immune adjuvants. In Manipulation of Host Defense Mechanisms, Aoki, T. et al. (eds.). Amsterdam: Excerpta Medica (International Congress Series 576).
  6. Akramiene D, Kondrotas A, Didziapetriene J, Kevelaitis E.   Effects of beta-glucans on the immune system.  Medicina (Kaunas). 2007;43(8):597-606. Review.
  7. Aoki T. et al. 1984. Antibodies to HTLV-1 and HTLV-3 in from Two Japanese Patients: One possible Pre-A.I.D.S. Lancet 2:936.
  8. Amagase H. et al. 1984. L.E.M. May be Effective Against Treating Hepatitis B Cases. Abstr. 197 Gastroenterology World Congress, Lisbon
  9. Antoniou L.D., et al. 1977. Reversal of Uraemic Impotence by Zinc. Lancet 2:895-98
  10. Aoki T. Et al. 1984. Antibodies to HTLV-1 and HTLV-3 in Sera from Two Japanese Patients:One with possible Pre-A.I.D.S. Lancet 2:936
  11. Aoki T., 1987. Low natural killer syndrome: clinical and immunological features. Nat. Immun.Cell Growth Regul. 6(3), 116-128.
  12. Aoki T, 1987. Low natural killer syndrome: clinical and immunologic features. Nat Immun Cell Growth Regul 6(3), 116-128
  13. Arinaga S, 1992. Enhanced induction of lymphokine-activated killer activity after lentinan administration in patients with gastric carcinoma. Int J Immunopharmacol 14(4), 535-53
  14. Arinaga S, 1992. Enhanced production of interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor by peripheral monocytes after lentinan administration in patients with gastric carcinoma. Int J Immunopharmacol 14(1), 43-47
  15. Arinaga S., 1992. Enhanced induction of lymphokine-activated killer after lentinan adminstrationin patients with gastric carcinoma. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 14(4), 535-53.
  16. Balon TW, Jasman AP, Zhu JS. A fermentation product of Cordyceps sinensis increases whole-body insulin sensitivity in rats. J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Jun;8(3):315-23.
  17. Bankhead, C., 1999. Mushrooms may play role in breast cancer prevention and treatment. Medicine Science News Dec. 10.
  18. Bao X, Fang J, Li X. Structural characterization and immunomodulating activity of a complex glucan from spores of Ganoderma lucidum. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2001 Nov;65(11):2384-91.
  19. Bernardshaw S, Lyberg T, Hetland G, Johnson E.   Effect of an extract of the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill on expression of adhesion molecules and production of reactive oxygen species in monocytes and granulocytes in human whole blood ex vivo.  APMIS. 2007 Jun;115(6):719-25.
  20. Brauer D, Kimmons T, Phillips M. Effects of management on the yield and high-molecular-weight polysaccharide content of shiitake (Lentinula edodes) mushrooms. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Sep 11;50(19):5333-7.
  21. Benedict, RG & LR Brady. 1972. Antimicrobial activity of mushroom metabolites. J. Pharm. Sci. 61: 1820-1822.
  22. Bernardshaw S, Johnson E, Hetland G.   An extract of the mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill administered orally protects against systemic Streptococcus pneumoniae infection in mice.  Scand J Immunol. 2005 Oct;62(4):393-8.
  23. Bobek P, 1991. Cholesterol-lowering effect of the mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus in hereditary hypercholesterolemic rats. Ann Nutr Metab 35(4), 191-19
  24. Bobek, P., O.Ozidin & M. Mikus, 1995. Dietary oyster mushroom (Pleurotus osteatus) accelerates plasma turnover in hypercholesterolaemic rat. Physiological Research 44(5):287-291.
  25. Bobek, P., L. Ozidin & S. Galbavy, 1998. Dose and time-dependent hypercholesterolemic effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostereatus) in rats. Nutrition March 14(3): 282-286.
  26. Bok JW, et al. 1999. Antitumor sterols from the mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Phytochemistry. Aug;51(7):891-8.
  27. Borchers AT, et al. 1999. Mushrooms, tumors, and immunity. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. Sep;221(4):281-93. Review.
  28. Borchers AT, Keen CL, Gershwin ME.   Mushrooms, tumors, and immunity: an update.  Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2004 May;229(5):393-406. Review.
  29. Borchers AT, Krishnamurthy A, Keen CL, Meyers FJ, Gershwin ME. The immunobiology of mushrooms. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2012 Mar;233(3):259-76.
  30. Breene W. M. 1989. Nutritional & Medicinal Value of Exotic Mushrooms. Shiitake Mushrooms. The Proceeding of a National Symposium & Trade Show University of Minnesota 100-102
  31. Breene W. 1990.  Nutritional & medicinal value of specialty mushrooms. J of Food Productions.  53, 883-894.
  32. Broadbent, D. 1966. Antibiotics produced by fungi. Bot. Rev. 32: 219-242.
  33. Brodziak L, 1984. Nutritive value of the mushroom Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing. (shiitake) compared with that of other edible mushrooms Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 35(1), 59-62
  34. Chan WK, Law HK, Lin ZB, Lau YL, Chan GC.   Response of human dendritic cells to different immunomodulatory polysaccharides derived from mushroom and barley. Int Immunol. 2007 Jul;19(7):891-9. Epub 2007 Jul 2.
  35. Chan Y, Chang T, Chan CH, Yeh YC, Chen CW, Shieh B, Li C.   Immunomodulatory effects of Agaricus blazei Murill in Balb/cByJ mice.  J Microbiol Immunol Infect. 2007 Jun;40(3):201-8.
  36. Chang, R. 1993. Limitations and Potential applications of Ganoderma and related fungal polyglycans in clinical ontology; First International Conference on Mushroom Biology and Mushroom products: 96
  37. Chang, R. 1994. Effective dose of ganoderma in humans. In Proc. Contributed Symposium 59A, B. 5th Intl. Mycol. Congr., Buchanan PK, Hseu RS and Moncalvo JM (eds), Taipei, p. 101-13.
  38. Chang, R. 1996. The Central Importance of the beta-glucan receptor as the basis of immunologic bioactivity of ganoderma polysaccharides, In Reishi, Mizuno T, Kim BK (eds), II Yang Press, Seoul, p.177-9
  39. Chang, R. Y. 1996. Potential Application of Ganoderma Polysaccharides in the Immune Surveillance and Chemoprevention of Cancer. 153-160 In: Royse, D.J. (ed). 1996. Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products. Proceedings of the Second International Congress.
  40. Chang, S.T. and Bushwell, J. A. 1996 Mushroom Nutraceuticals.  World Jour  Micro Biotechnology.  12, 473-476.
  41. Cheng HH, Hou WC, Lu ML. Interactions of lipid metabolism and intestinal physiology with Tremella fuciformis Berk edible mushroom in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet with or without Nebacitin. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Dec 4;50(25):7438-43.
  42. Cheng Q, 1992. Effect of cordyceps sinensis on cellular immunity in rats with chronic renal insufficiency Chung Hua I Hsueh Tsa Chih (Taipei) 72(1), 27-29
  43. Chen, A. W., 1997. Topical Use of Ganoderma Mushrooms. The Mushroom Growers Newsletter V (11), March 1997.
  44. Chen, J & R Jiang. 1980. A pharmacognostical study of the Chinese drug Lingzhi (Ganoderma). Acta. Pharm. Sin. 15:244
  45. Chen JR, 1993. The effects of Chinese herbs on improving survival and inhibiting anti-ds DNA antibody production in lupus mice. Am J Chin Med 21(3-4), 257-26
  46. Chen, K & W Zhang. 1987. Advances on anti-aging herbal medicines in China. Abstrcts of Chinese Medicines. 1:309-330
  47. Chen WC, 1995. Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and krestin on cellular immunocompetence in gamma-ray-irradiated mice. Am J Chin Med 23(1), 71-80
  48. Chen YJ, 1997. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis on the proliferation and differentiation of human leukemic U937 cells. Life Sci 60(25), 2349-2359 (1997)
  49. Cheng Q, 1992. Effect of cordyceps sinensis on cellular immunity in rats with chronic renal insufficiency. Chung Hua I Hsueh Tsa Chih (Taipei) 72(1), 27-29
  50. Chihara, G., Maeda, Y. Y. 1969 . Inhibition of mouse sarcoma 180 by polysaccharides from lentinus edodes, Nature, vol. 222, pg. 687.
  51. Chihara G, 1969. Study on the antineoplastic activity and analysis of active fractions of Polyporaceae, Lentinus edodes and other basidiomycetes. Nippon Rinsho 27(6), 1739-174
  52. Chihara G, 1970. Antitumor polysaccharides, lentinan and pachymaran. Saishin Igaku 25(5), 1043-1048
  53. Chihara G, et. al. 1970. Fractionation and purification of the polysaccharides with marked antitumor activity, especially lentinan, from Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing. (an edible mushroom). Cancer Res 30(11), 2776-278
  54. Chihara G, 1987. Antitumor and metastasis-inhibitory activities of lentinan as an immunomodulator: an overview. Cancer Detect Prev Suppl 1, 423-443
  55. Chiu JH, et al.1998. Cordyceps sinensis increases the expression of major histocompatibility complex class II antigens on human hepatoma cell line HA22T/VGH cells. Am J Chin Med. 1998;26(2):159-70.
  56. Cochran K.W. et al. 1967 . Botanical Sources of Influenza Inhibitors" - Anti - Microbial Agents & Chemotherapy 515
  57. Christov G, 1965. Studies on the antitumoral activity of Actinomycetes by the in vitro method. Dokl Bolg Akad Nauk 18(6), 573-57
  58. Cozens, D.D. et al. 1981a. The effect of lentinan on fertility and general reproductive performance of the rat. Toxicol. Lett. 9:55-64.
  59. Currie CR, Wong B, Stuart AE, Schultz TR, Rehner SA, Mueller UG, Sung GH, Spatafora JW, Straus NA. Ancient tripartite coevolution in the attine ant-microbe symbiosis. Science. 2003 Jan 17;299(5605):386-8.
  60. Cutler R.G. 1991. Anti-Oxidants & Ageing. Ann J. Clin. Nutr. 53:373S-379S
  61. Czop, J.K., Austen, K.F. 1985. A beta-Glucan inhibit able receptor on human monocytes, J. Immunol. 134, 2588-593.
  62. Daly J.N. et al. 1988. Immune & Metabolic Effects of Arginine in the Surgical Patient" . Annal Surg. 208(4):512-23
  63. Dennart, G. and D. Tucker. 1973. Antirumor polysaccharide Lentinan, a T cell adjuvant. J. Natl. Cancer lnst. 51:1729.
  64. deVere White RW, Hackman RM, Soares SE, Beckett LA, Sun B. Effects of a mushroom mycelium extract on the treatment of prostate cancer. Urology. 2002 Oct;60(4):640-4.
  65. Ding, G. 1987. Anti-arrhythmia agents in traditional Chinese medicines. From Abstrarts of Chinese Medicines 1:287-308.
  66. Diniz RO, Garla LK, Schneedorf JM, Carvalho JC.
     Study of anti-inflammatory activity of Tibetan mushroom, a symbiotic culture of bacteria and fungi encapsulated into a polysaccharide matrix. Pharmacol Res. 2003 Jan;47(1):49-52.
  67. Diplock A.T. 1991. Anti-Oxidant Nutrients & Disease Prevention: An Overview. Am J. Clin Nutr. 53:189S-193S   Drandarska I, Kussovski V, Nikolaeva S, Markova N.  Combined immunomodulating effects of BCG and Lentinan after intranasal application in guinea pigs.
    Int Immunopharmacol. 2005 Apr;5(4):795-803.
  68. Du DJ, 1986. Antitumor activity of Cordyceps sinensis and cultured Cordyceps mycelia. Chung Yao Tung Pao 11(7), 51-54
  69. Ebina T.  [Antitumor effects of intratumoral injection of Basidiomycetes preparations] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2005 Oct;32(11):1654-6. Japanese.
  70. Eisman J.A. et al. 1988. Rapid Turnover of 1,25 Dihydroxy Vitamin D Receptor in Human Target Cells. Endocrinol. 122:1613-21
  71. Espenshade, M. A. & E. W. Griffith. 1966. Tumor-inhibiting basidiomycetes. isolation and cultivation in the laboratory. Mycologia 58: 511-517.
  72. Fang N, Li Q, Yu S, Zhang J, He L, Ronis MJ, Badger TM.  Inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis in human cancer cell lines by an
    ethyl acetate fraction from shiitake mushrooms. J Altern Complement Med. 2006 Mar;12(2):125-32.
  73. Fehser J. et al. 1989. The Effect of Lentinan on Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme Activity in Vitro. Immunopharmocal. (Immunotoxical.) 11(1):55-61
  74. Feofilova EP, et al. 1998. [Lipid composition of fruiting bodies and submerged mycelium from Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing]. Mikrobiologiia. 1998 Sep-Oct;67(5):655-9.
  75. Finkelstein MP, Aynehchi S, Samadi AA, Drinis S, Choudhury MS, Tazaki H, Konno S. Chemosensitization of carmustine with maitake beta-glucan on androgen-independent prostatic cancer cells: involvement of glyoxalase I. J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Oct;8(5):573-80.
  76. Flynn, V.T. 1991. Is the shiitake mushroom an aphrodisiac and a cause of longevitvy? From: Science and Cultivation of Edible Fungi (Maher, ed.). Rotterdam: Balkema.
  77. Fruehauf JP, 1982. The effect of lentinan on production of interleukin-1 by human monocytes. Immunopharmacology 5(1), 65-7.
  78. Fu, H. and Z. Wang. 1982. The clinical effects of Ganoderma lucidium spore preparations in 10 cases of atrophic myotonia. J. Trad. Chin. Med. 2:63-65.
  79. Fukada S, Setoue M, Morita T, Sugiyama K.  Dietary eritadenine suppresses guanidinoacetic Acid-induced hyperhomocysteinemia in rats. J Nutr. 2006 Nov;136(11):2797-802.
  80. Fujita, A., et. al. 1969. Determination of vitamin D by thin layer chromatography. II. Determination of vitamin D in Shiitake Lentinus edodes. Vitamins 40: 129-135.
  81. Gan KH, et al. 1998. Mediation of the cytotoxicity of lanostanoids and steroids of Ganoderma tsugae through apoptosis and cell cycle. J Nat Prod. Apr; 61(4): 485-487.
  82. Gao, B. and G. Yang. 1991. Effects of Ganoderm planatum polysaccharide on cellular and humoral iImunity in normal and sarcoma 180 transplanted mice. Phythother. Res. 5:134- 138. From CA 115:85011v.
  83. Gao Q, et al. 1996. Characterisation of acidic heteroglycans from Tremella fuciformis Berk with cytokine stimulating activity. Carbohydr Res.; 288: 135-142.
  84. Gao QP, et al. 1996 Aug. Characterization and cytokine stimulating activities of heteroglycans from Tremella fuciformis. Planta Med.; 62(4): 297-302.
  85. Gao Q, et al. 1997. Characterization and cytokine-stimulating activities of acidic heteroglycans from Tremella fuciformis. Planta Med.; 63(5): 457-460.
  86. Gao Y, Zhou S, Wen J, Huang M, Xu A. Mechanism of the antiulcerogenic effect of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides on indomethacin-induced lesions in the rat. Life Sci. 2002 Dec 27;72(6):731-45.
  87. Garland C.F. et al. 1989. Serum 25 Hydroxy-Vitamin D & Colon Cancer: 8 Year Prospective Study. Lancet 2:1176-78
  88. Geng, S. et al. 1985. Treatment of Hyperlipidemia with Cultivated Cordyceps-A Double Blind, Randomized Placebo Control Trial. Chin. J. Integ. Med. 5(11), 652.
  89. Gentao, L & R. Xu. 1985. Immuno-pharmacologic activity of Cordyceps sinensis (berk.) Sacc. Chi J Int Trad & West Med. 21(6): 622-624.
  90. Ghafar MA, Golliday E, Bingham J, Mansukhani MM, Anastasiadis AG, Katz AE. Regression of prostate cancer following administration of Genistein Combined Polysaccharide (GCP), a nutritional supplement: a case report. J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Aug;8(4):493-7.
  91. Ghafar MA, Golliday E, Bingham J, Mansukhani MM, Anastasiadis AG, Katz AE. Regression of prostate cancer following administration of Genistein Combined Polysaccharide (GCP), a nutritional supplement: a case report. J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Aug;8(4):493-7.
  92. Ghoneum, M., M. Wimbley, F. Salem, A. Mcklain, N. Attallan, G. Gill., 1995. Immunodulatory and anticancer effects of active hemicellulose compound (AHCC). Int. Journal of Immunotherapy XI (1) 23-28.
  93. Gong, M. et al. 1990. Molecular structure and immunoactivity of the polysaccharide from Cordyceps sinensis. Shengwu Huaxue Zazl. 6:486-492. From CA 1 14:94819w.
  94. Gordon M, et al. 1998. A placebo-controlled trial of the immune modulator, lentinan, in HIV-positive patients: a phase I/II trial. J Med. 29(5-6):305-30.
  95. Goulet N.R. et al. 1960. Differential & Specific of Echo Viruses by Plant Extracts" - Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 103-96
  96. Grabski AC, et al. 1998. Immobilization of manganese peroxidase from Lentinula edodes and its biocatalytic generation of MnIII-chelate as a chemical oxidant of chlorophenols. Biotechnol Bioeng. 1998 Oct 20;60(2):204-15.
  97. Guo FC, Williams BA, Kwakkel RP, Li HS, Li XP, Luo JY, Li WK, Verstegen MW.  Effects of mushroom and herb polysaccharides, as alternatives for an antibiotic, on the cecal microbial ecosystem in broiler chickens. Poult Sci. 2004 Feb;83(2):175-82.
  98. Guan YJ, 1992. Effect of Cordyceps sinesis on T-lymphocyte subsets in chronic renal failure. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 12(6), 338-339
  99. Gunde-Cimerman, N.G. and A. Cimerman, 1995. Pleurotus fruiting bodies contain the inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A Reductase-Lovastatin®. Experimental Mycology 19:1-6.
  100. Guo DZ, et al. 1984.  Preliminary observation on carboxyl-methyl Poria cocos polysaccharide (CMPCP) in treating chronic viral hepatitis. J Tradit Chin Med. Dec 1; 4(4): 282.
  101. Haak-Frendscho M, 1993. Ling Zhi-8: a novel T cell mitogen induces cytokine production and upregulation of ICAM-1 expression. Cell Immunol 150(1), 101-11
  102. Hamano K, et al. 1999. The preoperative administration of lentinan ameliorated the impairment of natural killer activity after cardiopulmonary bypass. Int J Immunopharmacol. Aug;21(8):531-40.
  103. Hamuro J, 1994. Synergistic antimetastatic effects of lentinan and interleukin 2 with pre- and post-operative treatments. Jpn J Cancer Res 85(12), 1288-1297
  104. Harada, T., & Kanetaka, T. 1987. [oral administration of LEM with EP3 improved the hepatic functions of hepatitis-B patients in vivo without serious side effects] Kantansui, vol.14, pg.327.
  105. Hartoma T.R. et al. 1977. Zinc Plasma Androgens and Male Sterility. Lancet 2:1125-26
  106. Hatanaka K. et al. 1989. Synthesis of an Inhibitor of Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus Infection. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 80.95-98
  107. Hattori T, et al.  1992.  Studies on antinephritic effects of plant components (3): Effect of pachyman, a main component of Poria cocos Wolf on original-type anti-GBM nephritis in rats and its mechanisms. Jpn J Pharmacol. May 1; 59(1): 89-96.
  108. Hatvani N, Kredics L, Antal Z, Mecs I. Changes in activity of extracellular enzymes in dual cultures of Lentinula edodes and mycoparasitic Trichoderma strains. J Appl Microbiol. 2002;92(3):415-23.
  109. Hayakawa K, Mitsuhashi N, Saito Y, et al. Effect of Krestin (PSK) as adjuvant treatment on the prognosis after radical radiotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer. Anticancer Res 13:1815-20, 1993.
  110. Hazama S, 1995. Clinical effects and immunological analysis of intraabdominal and intrapleural injection of lentinan for malignant ascites and pleural effusion of gastric carcinoma Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 22(11), 1595-1597
  111. Herlyn D, 1985.Monoclonal antibody-dependent murine macrophage-mediated cytotoxicity against human tumors is stimulated by lentinan. Jpn J Cancer Res 76(1), 37-42
  112. Heyland DK. In search of the magic nutraceutical: problems with current approaches. J Nutr. 2001 Sep;131(9 Suppl):2591S-5S.
  113. Hirasawa M, et al. 1999. Three kinds of antibacterial substances from Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing. (Shiitake, an edible mushroom). Int J Antimicrob Agents. Feb;11(2):151-7.
  114. Hishida I, 1988. Antitumor activity exhibited by orally administered extract from fruit body of Grifola frondosa (maitake). Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 36(5), 1819-1827
  115. Hockaday TD. Two herbal preparations, Cordyceps Cs4 and Cogent db: do they act on blood glucose, insulin sensitivity, and diabetes as "viscous dietary fibers?". J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Aug;8(4):403-5.
  116. Hokama Y. et al. 1981. In Vitro Inhibition of Platelel Aggregation with Low dalton Compounds from Aqueous Dialysates of Edible Fungi. Res. Comm. Chem. Pathol. & Pharmacol. 31:177-80
  117. - Honma, H., Oshima, S., Watanabe, S. et al. (1982). Clinical efficacy of schizophyllan (SPG) in treatment of lung cancers. A Randomized controlled study. Haigan 22: 499-512.
  118. Hong, Z. & Y. Li. 1990. Immuno-pharmacological functions of Cordyceps. Chi J Int Trad & West Med. 10(9): 570-571.
  119. Horiuchi Y, Kimura R, Kato N, Fujii T, Seki M, Endo T, Kato T, Kawashima K. Evolutional study on acetylcholine expression. Life Sci. 2003 Feb 28;72(15):1745-1756.
  120. Hu H, Ahn NS, Yang X, Lee YS, Kang KS. Ganoderma lucidum extract induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell. Int J Cancer. 2002 Nov 20;102(3):250-3.
  121. Hugenholtz J, Smid EJ. Nutraceutical production with food-grade microorganisms. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2002 Oct;13(5):497-507.
  122. Hsu MJ, Lee SS, Lin WW. Polysaccharide purified from Ganoderma lucidum inhibits spontaneous and Fas-mediated apoptosis in human neutrophils through activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway. J Leukoc Biol. 2002 Jul;72(1):207-16.
  123. Iino Y, Yokoe T, Ohwada S, et al. Eight-year results of adjuvant immunochemotherapies vs chemotherapy in the treatment of operable breast cancer. 18th International Congress of Chemotherapy. June 27-July 2, 1993, Stockholm, Sweden, p. 162, 1993.
  124. Ikekawa T, 1969. Antitumor activity of aqueous extracts of edible mushrooms. Cancer Res 29(3), 734-735
  125. Ikumoto, T. et al 1991. Physiologically active compounds in the extracts from Tockukaso and cultured mycelia of Cordyceps and Isaria. Yakugaku Zasshi 111(9): 504-509.
  126. Inoue A, Kodama N, Nanba H. Effect of maitake (Grifola frondosa) D-fraction on the control of the T lymph node Th-1/Th-2 proportion. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Apr;25(4):536-40.
  127. Irinoda, K. 1992. Stimulation of microbicidal host defense mechanisms against aerosol influenza virus infection by lentinan. Int. j Immunopharmacol. 14:971-977.
  128. Ishii K, Kita T, Hirata J, et al. Antitumor effect of PSK and its combined effect with CDDP on ovarian serous adenocarcinoma-bearing nude mice. Nippon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi 45:333-9, 1993.
  129. Ishizuka T, 1995. Effects of interferon-gamma on cell differentiation and cytokine production of a human monoblast cell line, U937. Inflammation 19(6), 627-636 (1995)
  130. Israilides C, Kletsas D, Arapoglou D, Philippoussis A, Pratsinis H, Ebringerová A, Hříbalová V, Harding SE.  In vitro cytostatic and immunomodulatory properties of the medicinal mushroom Lentinula edodes. Phytomedicine. 2012 Jan 31
  131. Ito H, 1972. Antitumor activity of Basidiomycetes. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 68(4), 429-44
  132. James, J. S. 1986. Shiitake, Lentinen, and AIDS/ARC. Aid Treatment News. 19:1-6.
  133. Jennemann R, et al. 1999. Basidiolipids from Agaricus are novel immune adjuvants. Immunobiology. Jun;200(2):277-89.
  134. Jia, YF., Zhou, XB., Meng, H., and Zhang, LX. Effects of Ling-Zhi on hemopoietic system in mice - immunopharmacological study (11). In The research on ganoderma (part I). Zhu S. and Mori M. (eds). Shanghai Med. U. Press, Shanghai, P. 284-288.
  135. Jiang J, Slivova V, Harvey K, Valachovicova T, Sliva D.  Ganoderma lucidum suppresses growth of breast cancer cells through the inhibition of Akt/NF-kappaB signaling.  Nutr Cancer. 2004;49(2):209-16.
  136. Jiang J, Slivova V, Valachovicova T, Harvey K, Sliva D. 2004.  Ganoderma lucidum inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells PC-3.  Int J Oncol. 2004 May;24(5):1093-9.
  137. Jingyi W, et al. 1997. Observation on the effects of Chinese medicine zhenxuanyin for improving cerebral blood flow in rats with cerebral ischemia. J Tradit Chin Med. Dec;17(4):299-303.
  138. Jong, S.C., J.M. Birmingham and S.H. Pai, 1991. Immuno-modulatory substances of fungal origin. Journal of Immunol. Immunopharamacol. Vol. XI, N. 3.
  139. Jong, S.C. and J.M. Birmingham, 1992. Medicinal effects of the mushroom Ganoderma. Adv. Appl. Microbiol. 37:101-134.
  140. Jong SC, 1993. Medicinal and therapeutic value of the shiitake mushroom. Adv Appl Microbiol 39, 153-184
  141. Kabir Y, 1987. Effect of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) and maitake (Grifola frondosa) mushrooms on blood pressure and plasma lipids of spontaneously hypertensive rats. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 33(5), 341-346
  142. Kahlos, K. et al., 1996. Preliminary tests of antiviral activity of two Inonotus obliquus strains. Fitopterapia 6 (4) 344-7.
  143. Kanayama H, et al.  1983. A new antitumor polysaccharide from the mycelia of Poria cocos wolf. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). Mar 1; 31(3): 1115-1118.
  144. Kanayama H, et al.  1986.  [Studies on the antitumor-active polysaccharides from the mycelia of Poria cocos Wolf. I. Fractionation and purification of antitumor polysaccharide H11]. Yakugaku Zasshi. Mar 1; 106(3): 199-205. Japanese.
  145. Kanayama H, et al.  1986. [Studies on the antitumor-active polysaccharides from the mycelia of Poria cocos Wolf. II. Structural analysis of antitumor polysaccharide H11]. Yakugaku Zasshi. Mar 1; 106(3): 206-211. Japanese.
  146. Kanayama H, et al.  1986.  [Studies on the antitumor active polysaccharides from the mycelia of Poria cocos Wolf. III. Antitumor activity against mouse tumors]. Yakugaku Zasshi. Apr 1; 106(4): 307-312. Japanese.
  147. Kanemoto, M. 1983. Acute Oral Toxicity Study of Lentinus Edodes Mycelial Powder (Moncelium rtm powder) in Male and Female Mice, Biotechnical Research Laboratories, Inc., Tech. Report No. 830916A, Oct. 20.
  148. Kato, T., et al. 1979. Reduction of serum X-proline-dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase activity in tumor-bearing mice and reversal of reduced enzyme activity by lentinan, an anti-tumor polysaccharide, Experimentia, vol. 35 (3), pg. 409.
  149. Kawagishi et al., 1991. "Hericenones C, D and E, Stimulators of nerve growth factor (NGF)-synthesis from the mushroom Hericium erinaceum." Tetrahedron Letters, vol. 32, no. 35, pp. 4561-4564.
  150. Kawagishi et al., 1994. Erinacines A, B, C, strong stimulators of nerve growth factor synthesis, from the mycelia of Hericium erinaceum. Tetrahedron Letters 35 (10): 1569-1572.
  151. Kawagishi H, 1997. A lectin from mycelia of the fungus Ganoderma lucidum. Phytochemistry 44(1), 7-10
  152. Keogh E.J. and Impotence Study Group of Western Australia . 1991. Medical Management of Impotence. Mod. Med. Australia 2:51-65
  153. Kidd PM.   The use of mushroom glucans and proteoglycans in cancer treatment.  Altern Med Rev. 2000 Feb;5(1):4-27. Review.
  154. Kiho T, 1993. Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXII. Hypoglycemic activity and chemical properties of a polysaccharide from the cultural mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis. Biol Pharm Bull 16(12), 1291-1293
  155. Kiho T, et al. 1995.  Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXV. Anti diabetic activity of an acidic polysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of Tremella aurantia. Biol Pharm Bull.; 18(12): 1627-1629.
  156. Kiho T, 1996. Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXVI. Hypoglycemic activity of a polysaccharide (CS-F30) from the cultural mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis and its effect on glucose metabolism in mouse liver. Biol Pharm Bull 19(2), 294-296
  157. Kiho T, et al. 1999. Structural features and hypoglycemic activity of a polysaccharide (CS-F10) from the cultured mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis. Biol Pharm Bull. Sep;22(9):966-70.
  158. Kim, B.K., H.W. Kim and E.C. Choi, 1994. Anti-HIV effects of Ganoderma lucidum. In : Ganoderma: Systematics, Phytopathology & Pharmacology: Proceedings of Contributed Symposium 59 A,B. 5th International Mycological Congress. Vancouver.
  159. Kim, B.K., H.W. Kim and E.C. Choi, 1996. Medicinal Efficacies of Ganoderma lucidum (XV) Anti-HIV Activities of Ganoderma lucidum. 187-194. In: Royse, D.J. (ed). 1996. Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products. Proceedings of the Second International Congress.
  160. Kim DH, et al.1999. Beta-glucuronidase-inhibitory activity and hepatoprotective effect of Ganoderma lucidum. Biol Pharm Bull. 1999 Feb;22(2):162-4.
  161. Kim HS, et al. 1999. In vitro chemopreventive effects of plant polysaccharides (Aloe barbadensis miller, Lentinus edodes, Ganoderma lucidum and Coriolus versicolor). Carcinogenesis. Aug;20(8):1637-40.
  162. Kim HY, Kim JH, Yang SB, Hong SG, Lee SA, Hwang SJ, Shin KS, Suh HJ, Park MH.  A polysaccharide extracted from rice bran fermented with Lentinus edodes enhances natural killer cell activity and exhibits anticancer effects. J Med Food. 2007 Mar;10(1):25-31.
  163. Kim KC, et al. 1999. Ganoderma lucidum extract protects DNA from strand breakage caused by hydroxyl radical and UV irradiation. Int J Mol Med. Sep;4(3):273-7.
  164. Kim JR, Yeon SH, Kim HS, Ahn YJ. Larvicidal activity against Plutella xylostella of cordycepin from the fruiting body of Cordyceps militaris. Pest Manag Sci. 2002 Jul;58(7):713-7.
  165. Kim RS, 1997. Suppressive effects of Ganoderma lucidum on proliferation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Mol Cells 7(1), 52-5
  166. Kim SW, Hwang HJ, Xu CP, Sung JM, Choi JW, Yun JW. Optimization of submerged culture process for the production of mycelial biomass and exo-polysaccharides by Cordyceps militaris C738. J Appl Microbiol. 2003;94(1):120-6.
  167.  Kimura Y.   New anticancer agents: in vitro and in vivo evaluation of the antitumor and antimetastatic actions of various compounds isolated from medicinal plants.  In Vivo. 2005 Jan-Feb;19(1):37-60. Review.
  168. Kobayashi H, Kumagai F, Itagaki T, Koyama T, Inokuchi N, Iwama M, Ohgi K, Irie M. Amino acid sequence and characterization of a nuclease (nuclease Le3) from Lentinus edodes. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002 Jun;66(6):1345-55.
  169. Kodama N, Komuta K, Nanba H. Can maitake MD-fraction aid cancer patients? Altern Med Rev. 2002 Jun;7(3):236-9. Review.
  170. Kodama N, Harada N, Nanba H. A Polysaccharide, Extract From Grifola frondosa, Induces Th-1 Dominant Responses in Carcinoma-Bearing BALB/c Mice. Jpn J Pharmacol. 2002 Dec;90(4):357-60.
  171. Kodama N, Komuta K, Sakai N, Nanba H. Effects of D-Fraction, a Polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa on Tumor Growth Involve Activation of NK Cells. Biol Pharm Bull. 2002 Dec;25(12):1647-50.
  172. Kodama N, Komuta K, Nanba H.   Effect of Maitake (Grifola frondosa) D-Fraction on the activation of NK cells in cancer patients.  J Med Food. 2003 Winter;6(4):371-7.
  173. Kodama N, Murata Y, Nanba H.   Administration of a polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa stimulates immune function of normal mice.  J Med Food. 2004 Summer;7(2):141-5.
  174. Kodama N, Asakawa A, Inui A, Masuda Y, Nanba H.  Enhancement of cytotoxicity of NK cells by D-Fraction, a polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa.
    Oncol Rep. 2005 Mar;13(3):497-502.
  175. Koh JH, Kim JM, Chang UJ, Suh HJ. Hypocholesterolemic Effect of Hot-Water Extract from Mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 Jan;26(1):84-7.
  176. Koh JH, Yu KW, Suh HJ, Choi YM, Ahn TS. Activation of macrophages and the intestinal immune system by an orally administered decoction from cultured mycelia of Cordyceps sinensis. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002 Feb;66(2):407-11.
  177. Konishi, H. 1988. Polysaccharides-contg. extracts from Heterobasidiae as anti inflammatory agents. Jpn. Kokai Tokkyo Koho 63 JP 63, 183, 537 [88,183,537].
  178. Koyama K, 1997. Antinociceptive components of Ganoderma lucidum. Planta Med 63(3), 224-227 (1997)
  179. Kubo, K., H. Aoki, & H. Nanba, 1994. Anti-diabetic activity present in the fruit body Grifola frondosa (Maitake). Biol. Pharm. Bull. 17, 8: 1106-1110.
  180. Kubo K, 1996. The effect of Maitake mushrooms on liver and serum lipids. Altern Ther Health Med 2(5), 62-66
  181. Kuo MC, Weng CY, Ha CL, Wu MJ.   Ganoderma lucidum mycelia enhance innate immunity by activating NF-kappaB.  J Ethnopharmacol. 2006 Jan 16;103(2):217-22. Epub 2005 Sep 15.
  182. Kuo YC, 1994. Growth inhibitors against tumor cells in Cordyceps sinensis other than cordycepin and polysaccharides. Cancer Invest 12(6), 611-615
  183. Kuo YC, 1996. Cordyceps sinensis as an immunomodulatory agent. Am J Chin Med 24(2), 111-125 (1996)
  184. Kupfahl C, Geginat G, Hof H.  Lentinan has a stimulatory effect on innate and adaptive immunity against murine Listeria monocytogenes infection.
    Int Immunopharmacol. 2006 Apr;6(4):686-96.
  185. Kupin, V. (1994) A new biological response modifier - ganoderma lucidum - and its application in oncology. In Proceedings from the 6th international symposium on ganoderma lucidum. Seoul, II Yang, p.36-37.
  186. Kurashige S, 1997. Effects of Lentinus edodes, Grifola frondosa and Pleurotus ostreatus administration on cancer outbreak, and activities of macrophages and lymphocytes in mice treated with a carcinogen, N-butyl-N-butanolnitrosoamine. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol 19(2), 175-183
  187. Lee JW, Koo BW, Choi JW, Choi DH, Choi IG.  Evaluation of waste mushroom logs as a potential biomass resource for the production of bioethanol. Bioresour Technol. 2012 May;99(8):2736-41.
  188. Lee JY, Kim JY, Lee YG, Rhee MH, Hong EK, Cho JY.  Molecular Mechanism of Macrophage Activation by Exopolysaccharides from Liquid Culture of Lentinus edodes. J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2012 Feb;18(2):355-64.
  189. Lee, SS., Chen, FD., Chang, SC., et al. 1984. In vivo anti-tumor effects of crude extracts from the mycelium of ganoderma lucidum. J. of Chinese Oncology Society 5(3): 22-28.
  190. Lei J, 1992. Pharmacological study on Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. and ze-e Cordyceps Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 17(6), 364-366
  191. Lei LS, 1993. Effects of Ganoderma polysaccharides on the activity of DNA polymerase alpha of splenocytes and immune function in aged mice. Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 28(8), 577-58
  192. Li SP, Su ZR, Dong TT, Tsim KW. The fruiting body and its caterpillar host of Cordyceps sinensis show close resemblance in main constituents and anti-oxidation activity. Phytomedicine. 2002 May;9(4):319-24.
  193. Lieu CW. 1992. The effect of Ganoderma lucidum on induction of differentiation in leukemic U937 cells. Anticancer Res 12(4), 1211-1215
  194. Lin CY. 1999. Inhibition of activated human mesangial cell proliferation by the natural product of Cordyceps sinensis (H1-A): an implication for treatment of IgA mesangial nephropathy. J Lab Clin Med. Jan;133(1):55-63.  Lin H, She YH, Cassileth BR, Sirotnak F, Cunningham Rundles S.  Maitake beta-glucan MD-fraction enhances bone marrow colony formation and reduces  doxorubicin toxicity in vitro.
    Int Immunopharmacol. 2004 Jan;4(1):91-9.
  195. Lin JM, 1993. Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory and liver-protective effects of anoectochilus formosanus, ganoderma lucidum and gynostemma pentaphyllum in rats. Am J Chin Med 21(1), 59-69
  196. Lin JM, 1995. Radical scavenger and antihepatotoxic activity of Ganoderma formosanum, Ganoderma lucidum and Ganoderma neo-japonicum. J Ethnopharmacol 47(1), 33-4
  197. Lin WH, 1997. Dimerization of the N-terminal amphipathic alpha-helix domain of the fungal immunomodulatory protein from Ganoderma tsugae (Fip-gts) defined by a yeast two-hybrid system and site-directed mutagenesis. J Biol Chem 272(32), 20044-20048
  198. Lin, Z.-B, 1993. Advances in the pharmacology of Tremella polysaccharides. Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products. S.T. Chang et al., pp. 293-298. The Chinese University Press.
  199. Lin, Y. & G. Wu, 1988. Protective effect of Polyporus umbellatus polysaccharide on toxic hepatitis in mice. 9:345-348, from Abstracts of Chinese Medicines 1: 444.
  200. Lin, Y. et al., 1987. A double-blind treatment of 72 cases of chronic hepatitis with Lentinan injection. New Drugs and Clinical Remedies 6:362-363, from Abstracts of Chinese Medicines 2:325.
  201. _______, 1989. Pharmacological and gastronomic effects of fungi and its applications. Chemical Times, No.1, p. 12-21.
  202. Lin PZ, 1984. Inhibitory effect of Cordyceps on carcinogenesis of the forestomach in mice. Chung Hua Chung Liu Tsa Chih 6(5), 335-337
  203. Lin YL, Lee SS, Hou SM, Chiang BL.   Polysaccharide purified from Ganoderma lucidum induces gene expression changes in
    human dendritic cells and promotes T helper 1 immune response in BALB/c mice.  Mol Pharmacol. 2006 Aug;70(2):637-44. Epub 2006 May 2.
  204. Liu ZY, et al. 1993. [Effect of improving memory and inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity by invigorating-qi and warming-yang recipe, Poria cocos]. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih. Nov 1; 13(11): 675-676. Chinese.
  205. Liu, C. 1992. Effects of Cordyceps sinensis on in vitro natural killer cells. Chung-Kua, chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 12: 267-269, 259.
  206. Liu YC, et al.  1995. [Effects of poria cocos on ototoxicity induced by kanamycin in guinea-pigs]. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih. Jul 1; 15(7): 422-423. Chinese.
  207. Liu F, et al. 1999; Analysis of immunomodulating cytokine mRNAs in the mouse induced by mushroom polysaccharides. Life Sci. 64(12):1005-11.
  208. Liu X, Yuan JP, Chung CK, Chen XJ. Antitumor activity of the sporoderm-broken germinating spores of Ganoderma lucidum. Cancer Lett. 2002 Aug 28;182(2):155-61.
  209. Lo TC, Kang MW, Wang BC, Chang CA. Glycosyl linkage characteristics and classifications of exo-polysaccharides of some regionally different strains of Lentinula edodes by amplified fragment length polymorphism assay and cluster analysis. Anal Chim Acta. 2007 Jun 5;592(2):146-53.
  210. Lo TC, Jiang YH, Chao AL, Chang CA.  Use of statistical methods to find the polysaccharide structural characteristics  and the relationships between monosaccharide composition ratio and macrophage stimulatory activity of regionally different strains of Lentinula edodes. Anal Chim Acta. 2007 Feb 12;584(1):50-6.
  211. Lu H, Kyo E, Uesaka T, Katoh O, Watanabe H. Prevention of development of N,N'-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon tumors by a water-soluble extract from cultured medium of Ganoderma lucidum (Rei-shi) mycelia in male ICR mice. Int J Mol Med. 2002 Feb;9(2):113-7.
  212. Lu ZW, 1995. Psychoneuroimmunological effects of morphine and the immunoprotection of Ganoderma polysaccharides peptide in morphine-dependent mice. Sheng Li Ko Hsueh Chin Chan 26(1), 45-49
  213. Lull C, Wichers HJ, Savelkoul HF.  Antiinflammatory and immunomodulating properties of fungal metabolites.  Mediators Inflamm. 2005 Jun 9;2005(2):63-80. Review.
  214. Luo J, Zhao YY, Li ZB. A new lanostane-type triterpene from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma lucidum. J Asian Nat Prod Res. 2002 Jun;4(2):129-34.
  215. Ma J, Ye Q, Hua Y, Zhang D, Cooper R, Chang MN, Chang JY, Sun HH. New lanostanoids from the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum. J Nat Prod. 2002 Jan;65(1):72-5.
  216. Maeda YY, 1996. Two genes controlling acute phase responses by the antitumor polysacch aride, lentinan. Immunogenetics 43(4), 215-219
  217. Maeda YY & G. Chihara. 1971. Lentinen, a new immuno-accelerator of cell mediated response. Nature (London) 229: 634.
  218. Majchrowicz M.   Kombucha: a dubious "cure". GMHC Treat Issues. 1995 May;9(5):10.
  219. Manabe N, 1996. Effects of the mycelial extract of cultured Cordyceps sinensis on in vivo hepatic energy metabolism in the mouse. Jpn J Pharmacol 70(1), 85-88.
  220. Manohar V, Talpur NA, Echard BW, Lieberman S, Preuss HG. Effects of a water-soluble extract of maitake mushroom on circulating glucose/insulin concentrations in KK mice. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2002 Jan;4(1):43-8.
  221. Maruyama S, Sukekawa Y, Kaneko Y, Fujimoto S.  [Anti tumor activities of lentinan and micellapist in tumor-bearing mice] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2006 Nov;33(12):1726-9.
  222. Masayasu, N., et al. 1987. The Effects of the Alcohol Deposit Fraction LAP of LEM in Reinforcing the Macrophages Phagocytosis Ability, J. Japanese Reticuloendothelial System Res. Assoc., vol. 27(1), pp. 201-207.
  223. Matsuoka H, 1995. Usefulness of lymphocyte subset change as an indicator for predicting survival time and effectiveness of treatment with the immunopotentiator lentinan. Anticancer Res 15(5B), 2291-2296
  224. Matsuoka H, 1997. Lentinan potentiates immunity and prolongs the survival time of some patients. Anticancer Res 17(4A), 2751-2755
  225. Mau JL, Lin HC, Chen CC. Antioxidant properties of several medicinal mushrooms. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Oct 9;50(21):6072-7.
  226. Mitomi, T., Tsuchiya, S., Iijima, N., et al. 1992. Randomized control study on adjuvent immunochemotherapy with PSK in curatively resected colorectal cancer. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum. 35(2):123-30.
  227. Mattila P, Salo-Vaananen P, Konko K, Aro H, Jalava T. Basic composition and amino acid contents of mushrooms cultivated in Finland. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Oct 23;50(22):6419-22. De Mejía EG, Prisecaru VI.  Lectins as bioactive plant proteins: a potential in cancer treatment. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2005;45(6):425-45. Review.
  228. Miyaji CK, Poersch A, Ribeiro LR, Eira AF, Cólus IM.  Shiitake (Lentinula edodes (Berkeley) Pegler) extracts as a modulator of micronuclei induced in HEp-2 cells. Toxicol In Vitro. 2006 Dec;20(8):1555-9.
  229. Miyamoto, T., Abe, T., Hasunuma, K. 1985. Japan Kokai Tokkyo Koho JP60, 199,80 [85,199.810] (CI. A61K7/06). Appl. 84/5,977. 24 Mar 1984.
  230. Miyazaki T, 1981. Studies on fungal polysaccharides. XXVII. Structural examination of a water-soluble, antitumor polysaccharide of Ganoderma lucidum. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 29(12), 3611-3616
  231. Miyakoshi H, 1984. Acting mechanisms of Lentinan in human--I. Augmentation of DNA synthesis and immunoglobulin production of peripheral mononuclear cells. Int J Immunopharmacol 6(4), 365-371
  232. Miyakoshi H, 1984. Acting mechanisms of Lentinan in human--II. Enhancement of non-specific cell-mediated cytotoxicity as an interferon inducer. Int J Immunopharmacol 6(4), 373-379
  233. Mizoguchi, Y. et al. 1987. Protection of liver cells against experimental damage by extract of cultured Lentinus edodes mycelia (LEM). Gast. Japonica 22:459-464.
  234. Mizoguchi, Y., et al. 1987. Determination of IL-1 Activity in the Supernatant of a Macrophage Culture Treated with LEM, Kantansui, vol. 15(1), pp. 127-135.
  235. Mizoguchi, Y. 1987. The Effects of LEM on the Induction of anti-TNP-SRBC Antibody Producing Cells by PWM Stimulation, Kantansui, vol. 15(1), pp. 127-135.
  236. Mizono M, 1996. Preparation and specificity of antibodies to an anti-tumor beta-glucan, lentinan. Biochem Mol Biol Int 39(4), 679-685 (1996)
  237. Mizuno, T., 1988. Development and utilization of bioactive substances from medicinal and edible mushroom fungi. II. Ganoderma lucidum. Chemical Times 1989 (3) 50-60.
  238. Mizuno, T., Hagiwara, T., Nakamura, T., Ito, H. Shimura, K. Sumiya, T., Asakura, A. 1990. Antitumor activity and some properties of water-insoluble hetero-glycans from "Himematsutake," the fruting body of Agaricus blazei Murill. Agricultural & Biological Chemistry 54. Tokyo. pp. 2897-2905.
  239. Mizuno T, 1992. Antitumor-active polysaccharides isolated from the fruiting body of Hericium erinaceum, an edible and medicinal mushroom called yamabushitake or houtou. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 56(2), 347-348
  240. Mizuno, T., H. Saito, T. Nishitoba, & H. Kawagishi, 1995. Antitumor active substances from mushrooms. Food Reviews International 111: 23-61.
  241. Mizuno, T. 1996. A development on anti tumor polysaccharides from mushroom fungi. FFI Journal, 167:69-85.
  242. Mlodecki H, 1968. Tryptophan content in some edible mushrooms. Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig 19(4), 453-457
  243. Mori, H.1987. Effect of immunostimulants and antitumor agents on tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 9: 881-882.
  244. Morinaga H, 1994. An in vivo study of hepatic and splenic interleukin-1 beta mRNA expression following oral PSK or LEM administration. Jpn J Cancer Res 85(12), 1298-1303
  245. Muhlbacher F. & Kapadia C. 1982. Glutamine Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle Role of Glucocorticoids. Langenbeck's Arch. Chir. 357:203 (abstr.)
  246. Murakami M, 1997. Decreased pulmonary perfusion in hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by Shiitake mushroom spores. J Intern Med 241(1), 85-88 (1997)
  247. Murata T, 1996. Lentinan enhances sensitivity of mouse colon 26 tumor to cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II) and decreases glutathione transferase expression. Jpn J Cancer Res 87(11), 1171-1178
  248. Murcia MA, Martinez-Tome M, Jimenez AM, Vera AM, Honrubia M, Parras P. Antioxidant activity of edible fungi (truffles and mushrooms): losses during industrial processing. J Food Prot. 2002 Oct;65(10):1614-22.
  249. Nagashima Y, Sanpei N, Yamamoto S, Yoshino S, Tangoku A, Oka M.  [Evaluation of host immunity and side effects in breast cancer patients treated
    with adjuvant chemotherapy (FEC therapy)] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho. 2005 Oct;32(11):1550-2.
  250. Nakamura K, et al.1999. Inhibitory effect of Cordyceps sinensis on spontaneous liver metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma and B16 melanoma cells in syngeneic mice. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1999 Mar;79(3):335-41.
  251. Nakamura K. 1999. Activation of in vivo Kupffer cell function by oral administration of Cordyceps sinensis in rats.Jpn J Pharmacol. 1999 Apr;79(4):505-8.
  252. Nakano H, et al. 1999. A multi-institutional prospective study of lentinan in advanced gastric cancer patients with unresectable and recurrent diseases: effect on prolongation of survival and improvement of quality of life. Kanagawa Lentinan Research Group. Hepatogastroenterology. Jul-Aug;46(28):2662-8.
  253. Nakazato H, Koike A, Saji S, et al. Efficacy of immunochemotherapy as adjuvant treatment after curative resection of gastric cancer. Study Group of Immunochemotherapy with PSK for Gastric Cancer. Lancet 343(8906):1122-6, 1994.
  254. Nanba, H. 1987. The chemical structure of an antitumor polysaccharide in fruitbodies of Grifola frondosa (Maitake). Chem. Pharm Bull. 35:1162-8
  255. Nanba, H. 1995. Results of Non-Controlled Clinical Study for Various Cancer Patients Using Maitake D-Fraction. Explore! vol. 6, no. 5: 19-21.
  256. Nanba H. 1995. Activity of maitake D-fraction to inhibit carcinogenesis and metastasis. Ann N Y Acad Sci; 768:243-5 1995
  257. Narui T, et al. 1980.  A polysaccharide produced by laboratory cultivation of Poria cocos Wolf. Carbohydr Res.Dec 1; 87(1): 161-163.
  258. Nameda S, Miura NN, Adachi Y, Ohno N.   Lincomycin protects mice from septic shock in beta-glucan-indomethacin model. Biol Pharm Bull. 2007 Dec;30(12):2312-6.
  259. Nemoto Y, Satoh K, Toriizuka K, Hirai Y, Tobe T, Sakagami H, Nakashima H, Ida Y. Cytotoxic and radical scavenging activity of blended herbal extracts. In Vivo. 2002 Sep-Oct;16(5):327-32.
  260. Ng TB. 1998. A review of research on the protein-bound polysaccharide (polysaccharopeptide, PSP) from the mushroom Coriolus versicolor (Basidiomycetes: Polyporaceae). Gen Pharmacol. 1998 Jan;30(1):1-4.
  261. Ng ML, Yap AT. Inhibition of Human Colon Carcinoma Development by Lentinan from Shiitake Mushrooms (Lentinus edodes). J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Oct;8(5):581-9
  262. Ni T, Hu Y, Sun L, Chen X, Zhong J, Ma H, Lin Z. Oral route of mini-proinsulin-expressing Ganoderma lucidum decreases blood
    glucose level in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats.Int J Mol Med. 2007 Jul;20(1):45-51.
  263. Nishino, 2002. Inhibition of tumor-promoting effects by poricoic acids G and H and other lanostane-type triterpenes and cytotoxic activity of poricoic acids A and D from Poria cocos. J. Nat Prod. apr. 65(4):462-465.
  264. Nunoshsiba, T., et. al. 1990. Antimutagenic activity of hoelen extracts. Sci. Eng. Rev. Doshisha Univ. 30:266-272.
  265. Odani S, et al. 1999. The inhibitory properties and primary structure of a novel serine proteinase inhibitor from the fruiting body of the basidiomycete, Lentinus edodes. Eur J Biochem. Jun;262(3):915-23.
  266. O'Dorisia M.S. et al. 1985. Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide & Neuropeptide Modulation of the Immuno Response. J. Immunol. 135:792S-796S
  267. Ogawa K, 1994. Study on intratumor administration of lentinan--primary changes in cancerous tissues. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 21(13), 2101-2104
  268. Ogawa T, et al. 1999. Effects of 5'-DFUR and lentinan on cytokines and PyNPase against AH66 ascites hepatoma in rats. Anticancer Res. Jan-Feb;19(1A):375-9.
  269. Oguchi, Y. 1987. Effect of PSK on cytotoxicity against sarcoma180 in tumor-bearing mice. Anticancer Research. Pt. B 7:681-4.
  270. Ohmori T, 1986. Antitumor activity of protein-bound polysaccharide from Cordyceps ophioglossoides in mice. Jpn J Cancer Res 77(12), 1256-126
  271. Ohno N, 1985. Neutral and acidic antitumor polysaccharides extracted from cultured fruit bodies of Grifola frondosa. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 33(3), 1181-118
  272. Ohno, N., K. Iino, T. Takeyama, I. Suzuki, K. Sato, S. Oikawa, T. Miyazaki, & T. Yadomae, 1985. Structural characterization and antitumor activity of the extracts from matted mycelium of cultured Grifola frondosa.. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 33 (8) 3395-3401.
  273. Ohtsuru, M. ,l 992 Anti-Obesity Activity Exhibited by Orally Administered Powder of Maitake Mushroom (Grifola frondosa), Anshin, July, pp. 198.
  274. Okada R, Rybak J, Manz G, Menzel R.   Learning-related plasticity in PE1 and other mushroom body-extrinsic neurons in the honeybee brain.
    J Neurosci. 2007 Oct 24;27(43):11736-47.
  275. Okamura M, 1994. Distribution of ascorbic acid analogs and associated glycosides in mushrooms. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) 40(2), 81-9
  276. Okamoto, K., et al. 1993. Antimocrobial chlorinated orcinol derivatives from mycelium of Hericium erinaceus. Phytochemistry, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 1445-1446.
  277. Okazaki M, Adachi Y, Ohno N, Yadomae. 1995. Structure-activity relationship of (1-->3)-beta-D-glucans in the induction of cytokine production from macrophages, in vitro. Biol Pharm Bull; 18(10):1320-7.
  278. Okuda, T., Yoshioka, T., et al. 1972. Anti-complementary activity of anti-tumor polysaccharides, Nature, New Biol., vol. 238, pg. 59.
  279. Olsen R. et al. 1989. In: Bio-Medical Applications of Chiton & its Derivitives - Chilin & Chitosan Eds. S.K. Jak-Brack et al. Elsevier Science Pub. 813-28
  280. Ooi LS, Liu F, Ooi VE, Ng TB, Fung MC. Gene expression of immunomodulatory cytokines induced by Narcissus tazetta lectin in the mouse. Biochem Cell Biol. 2002;80(2):271-7.
  281. Otsuka M, 1996. Influences of a shiitake (Lentinus edodes)-fructo-oligosaccharide mixture (SK-204) on experimental pulmonary thrombosis in rats Yakugaku Zasshi 116(2), 169-173 (1996)
  282. Pacheco-Sanchez M, Boutin Y, Angers P, Gosselin A, Tweddell RJ.  A bioactive (1-->3)-, (1--4)-beta-D-glucan from Collybia dryophila and other
    mushrooms. Mycologia. 2006 Mar-Apr;98(2):180-5.
  283. Park EJ, 1997. Antifibrotic effects of a polysaccharide extracted from Ganoderma lucidum, glycyrrhizin, and pentoxifylline in rats with cirrhosis induced by biliary obstruction. Biol Pharm Bull 20(4), 417-420
  284. Pochanavanich P, Suntornsuk W. Fungal chitosan production and its characterization. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2002;35(1):17-21.
  285. Rafique M, 1995. Effects of intraportal administration of chemoimmunotherapeutic agents on natural killer cell activity in the rat liver. J Surg Oncol 60(3), 154-159
  286. Ren Z, Guo Z, Meydani SN, Wu D.  White button mushroom enhances maturation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and their antigen presenting function in mice. J Nutr. 2012 Mar;138(3):544-50.
  287. Reverberi M, Fabbri AA, Zjalic S, Ricelli A, Punelli F, Fanelli C.  Antioxidant enzymes stimulation in Aspergillus parasiticus by Lentinula edodes
    inhibits aflatoxin production. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2005 Nov;69(2):207-15.
  288. de Román M, Boa E, Woodward S.   Wild-gathered fungi for health and rural livelihoods.  Proc Nutr Soc. 2006 May;65(2):190-7. Review.
  289. Salvucci O, 1996. Differential regulation of interleukin-12- and interleukin-15-induced natural killer cell activation by interleukin-4. Eur J Immunol 26(11), 2736-2741
  290. Sakamoto Y, Irie T, Sato T.  Isolation and characterization of a fruiting body-specific exo-beta-1,3-glucanase-encoding gene, exg1, from Lentinula edodes.
    Curr Genet. 2005 Apr;47(4):244-52. Epub 2005 Feb 22.
  291. Sasaki T, 1976. Further study of the structure of lentinan, an anti-tumor polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes. Carbohydr Res 47(1), 99-104
  292. Sato T, et al. 1998. Transformation of the edible basidiomycete Lentinus edodes by restriction enzyme-mediated integration of plasmid DNA. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1998 Dec;62(12):2346-50.
  293. Scharf, M. B. et al. 1989. Comparative Effects of Prazosin and Hydrochlorothiazide on Sexual Function in Hypertensive Men. Am. J. Med. 86 Supp 18:110-112
  294. Schillings RT & HW Ruekius. 1968. Poricin, an acidic protein with anti-tumor activity from a basidiomycete. II. Crystalization, composition and properties. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 127: 672-679.
  295. Schinella GR, Tournier HA, Prieto JM, Mordujovich D, Rios JL. Antioxidant activity of anti-inflammatory plant extracts. Life Sci. 2002 Jan 18;70(9):1023-33.
  296. Shao G, 1985. Treatment of hyperlipidemia with cultivated Cordyceps--a double-blind, randomized placebo control trial. Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 5(11), 652-65
  297. Shieh YH, Liu CF, Huang YK, Yang JY, Wu IL, Lin CH, Li SC. Evaluation of the hepatic and renal-protective effects of Ganoderma lucidum in mice. Am J Chin Med. 2001;29(3-4):501-7.
  298. Shimada Y, Morita T, Sugiyama K. Effects of Lentinus edodes on fatty acid and molecular species profiles of phosphatidylcholine in rats fed different levels of corn oil. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002 Aug;66(8):1759-63.
  299. Shi, JH. 1993. PSP for the protection of the tumorous patients during chemotherapy. In 1993 PSP Intl Symposium, Yang QY and Kwok CY (eds.), Fudan U. Press, Shanghai, p.271-2
  300. Shi YL, James AE, Benzie IF, Buswell JA. Mushroom-derived preparations in the prevention of H2O2-induced oxidative damage to cellular DNA. Teratog Carcinog Mutagen. 2002;22(2):103-11.
  301. Sia GM, et al. 1999. Effects of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) extract on human neutrophils and the U937 monocytic cell line. Phytother Res. 1999 Mar;13(2):133-7.
  302. Sliva D, Labarrere C, Slivova V, Sedlak M, Lloyd FP Jr, Ho NW. Ganoderma lucidum suppresses motility of highly invasive breast and prostate cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002 Nov 8;298(4):603-12.
  303. Sliva D, Sedlak M, Slivova V, Valachovicova T, Lloyd FP Jr, Ho NW.  2003.  Biologic activity of spores and dried powder from Ganoderma lucidum for the inhibition of highly invasive human breast and prostate cancer cells. J Altern Complement Med. 2003 Aug;9(4):491-7
  304. Smriga M, et al. 1995. Hoelen (Poria Cocos Wolf) and ginseng (Panax Ginseng C. A. Meyer), the ingredients of a Chinese prescription DX-9386, individually promote hippocampal long-term potentiation in vivo. Biol Pharm Bull. Apr 1; 18(4): 518-522.
  305. Snow E.C. 1985. Insulin & Growth Hormone Function as Minor Growth Factors that Potentiate Lymphyocyte Activation. J. Immunol. 135 Suppl.740-746.
  306. Soboleva AIu, Krasnopol'skaia LM, Fedorova GB, Katrukha GS.  [Antibiotic properties of the strains of the basidiomycete Lentinus edodes (Berk.) sing]
    Antibiot Khimioter. 2006;51(7):3-8.
  307. Soo, T.S., 1994. The therapeutic value of Ganoderma lucidum. Proceedings of Contributed Symposium 59 A,B. 5th International Mycological Congress. Vancouver. pp. 105-113.
  308. Soo, T. S. 1996. Effective Dosage of the extract of Ganoderma lucidum in the Treatment of Various Ailments. 177-186 In: Royse, D.J. (ed). 1996. Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products. Proceedings of the Second International Congress.
  309. Sorimachi, K., et al. 1990. Anti-Viral Activity of Water-solubilized Lignin Derivatives in vitro, Agri. Biol. Chem., vol.54(5), pp.1337-1339.
  310. Spierings EL, Fujii H, Sun B, Walshe T. A Phase I Study of the Safety of the Nutritional Supplement, Active Hexose Correlated Compound, AHCC, in Healthy Volunteers. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2012 Dec;53(6):536-9.
  311. Spittler A, 1997. Effects of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and cytokines on the expression of MHC antigens, complement receptors and other antigens on human blood monocytes and U937 cells: role in cell differentiation, activation and phagocytosis. Immunology 90(2), 286-293 (1997)
  312. Stackl W. Et al. 1988. Intracavernous Injection of Prostaglandin E1 in Impotent Men. J. Urol 140:67-68
  313. Stanley G, Harvey K, Slivova V, Jiang J, Sliva D. 2005.   Ganoderma lucidum suppresses angiogenesis through the inhibition of secretion of VEGF and TGF-beta1 from prostate cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Apr 29;330(1):46-52.
  314. Stavinoha, J. Slana, S. Weintraub, P. Mobley (1991) The Antiinflammatory Activity of Ganoderma lucidum. Third International Symposium on ganoderma lucidum, 9-21.
  315. Stavinoha, W. 1993. Short term dietary supplementation with ganoderma lucidum slows development and growth of microadenomatous lesions in the colon .... Presented at the 5th international symposium on ganoderma lucidum, Seoul, Korea on June 17, 1993.
  316. Stavinoha, W., Satsangi, N., & Weintraub, S. 1995. Study of the antiinflammatory efficacy of Ganoderma lucidum. In B.-K. Kim, & Y.S. Kim (Eds.), Recent Advances in Ganoderma lucidum research (pp. 3-7). Seoul Korea: The Pharmaceutical Society of Korea. Stavinoha, W., Slana, J., Weintraub, S., & Mobley, P. (1991). The Antiinflammatory activity of Ganoderma lucidum. Third International Symposium on Ganoderma lucidum, 9-21.
  317. Suga, T., Shiio, T., Maeda, YY., Chihara, G. 1994. Anti tumor activity of lenytinan in murine syngeneic and autochthonous hosts and its suppressive effect on 3 methylcholanthrene induced carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. 44:5132-7.
  318. Sugano, N. et al. 1982. Anticarcinogenic actions of water soluble ans alcohol insoluable fractions of culture medium of Lentinus edodes mycelia. Cancer Letters 17: 109-114.
  319. Sun L, Cai H, Xu W, Hu Y, Lin Z. CaMV 35S promoter directs beta-glucuronidase expression in Ganoderma lucidum and Pleurotus citrinopileatus. Mol Biotechnol. 2002 Mar;20(3):239-44.
  320. Suzuki M, 1994. Curative effects of combination therapy with lentinan and interleukin-2 against established murine tumors, and the role of CD8-positive T cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother 38(1), 1-8
  321. Szedlay G. Is the widely used medicinal fungus the Ganoderma lucidum (Fr.) Karst. sensu stricto? (A short review). Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung. 2002;49(2-3):235-43. Review.
  322. Szeto CY, Wong QW, Leung GS, Kwan HS. Isolation and transcript analysis of two-component histidine kinase gene Le.nik1 in Shiitake mushroom, Lentinula edodes. Mycol Res. 2012 Jan;112(Pt 1):108-16. Epub 2007 Nov 21.
  323. Taguchi T. et al. 1985. End Point Results of Phase 3 Study of Lentinan. Japanese J. Cancer Chemother. 12:366-78
  324. Taguchi, T.1987. Clinical efficacy of lentinan on patients with stomach cancer: end point results of four-year follow-up survey. Cancer Detection & Prevention. Suppl. 1:333-49.
  325. Takehara, M. et al. 1983. Antitumor effects of virus-like particles from Lentinus edodes (Shiitake) on Ehrlich Acsites Carcinoma in mice. Archiv Virology 68: 297-301.
  326. Takeshita K, 1991. Diversity of complement activation by lentinan, an antitumor polysaccharide, in gastric cancer patients Nippon Geka Gakkai Zasshi 92(1), 5-11
  327. Takeshita K, 1993. Effect of lentinan on lymphocyte subsets of peripheral blood, lymph nodes, and tumor tissues in patients with gastric cancer. Surg Today 23(2), 125-129
  328. Takatsuki F, 1995. Lentinan augments skin reaction induced by bradykinin: its correlation with vascular dilatation and hemorrhage responses and antitumor activities. Int J Immunopharmacol 17(6), 465-474
  329. Takeshita K, 1996. Monocyte function associated with intermittent lentinan therapy after resection of gastric cancer. Surg Oncol 5(1), 23-28
  330. Talpur NA, Echard BW, Fan AY, Jaffari O, Bagchi D, Preuss HG. Antihypertensive and metabolic effects of whole Maitake mushroom owder and its fractions in two rat strains. Mol Cell Biochem. 2002 Aug;237(1-2):129-36.
  331. Talorete TP, Isoda H, Maekawa T. Agaricus blazei (class Basidiomycotina) aqueous extract enhances the expression of c-Jun protein in MCF7 cells. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Aug 28;50(18):5162-6.
  332. Tamura R, 1997. Effects of lentinan on abnormal ingestive behaviors induced by tumor necrosis factor. Physiol Behav 61(3), 399-410
  333. Tan YH, 1994. High concentrations of mannitol in the shiitake mushroom Lentinula edodes. Microbios 78(318), 31-35 (1994)
  334. Tani M, 1993. Augmentation of lymphokine-activated killer cell activity by lentinan. Anticancer Res 13(5C), 1773-1776
  335. Tochikura S.T. et al. 1987. Suppression Human Immuno-Deficiency Virus Replication by 3-Azido -3- Deoxythymidine in Various Human Haematopoetic Cell Lines Invitro: Augmentation by the Effect of Lentinan. JPN. J. Cancer Res. (Gann) 78:583
  336. Tochikura, T.S., et al. 1988. Inhibition (in vitro) of replication and of the cyptopathic effect of human immunodeficiency virus by an extract of the culture medium of Lentinus edodes mycelia, Med. Microbiol. Immunol., vol. 177, pp.235-244.
  337. Tokuzen, R., & Okabe, M. 1976. Combined effect of cyclocytidine and lentinan on spontaneous mammary tumors in mice, Gann, vol. 67, pg. 327.
  338. Torisu M, Hayashi Y, Ishimitsu T, et al. Significant prolongation of disease-free period gained by oral polysaccharide K (PSK) administration after curative surgical operation of colorectal cancer. Cancer Immunol Immunother 31:261-8, 1990.
  339. Tseng J, et al.  1992. Suppression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6 and granulocyte-monocyte colony stimulating factor secretion from human monocytes by an extract of Poria cocos. Chung Hua Min Kuo Wei Sheng Wu Chi Mien I Hsueh Tsa Chih. Feb 1; 25(1): 1-11.
  340. Tsunoo, A., N. N. Takemoto, H. Tsuboi, M. Kamiho, A. Nemoto, H. Sasaki, M. Uchida, 1995. Cordyceps sinensis: its diverse effects on mammals in vitro and in vivo. New Initiatives in Mycological Research: Proceedings of the Third International Symposium of the Mycological Society of Japan.
  341. Tsunoda A. & Ishida N. 1970. A Mushroom Extract as an Interferon Inducer. Ann N.Y. Acad. Sci. 173:719-26
  342. Turło J, Gutkowska B, Kałucka M, Bujak M.  Accumulation of zinc by the lentinus edodes (Berk.) mycelium cultivated in submerged culture.
    Acta Pol Pharm. 2007 Jan-Feb;64(1):45-51.
  343. Ukai S, 1972. Antitumor activity on sarcoma 180 of the polysaccharides from Tremella fuciformis Berk. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 20(10), 2293-2294
  344. Ukai S; Kiho T; Hara C; Kuruma I; Tanaka Y 1983. Polysaccharides in fungi. XIV. Anti-inflammatory effect of the polysaccharides from the fruit bodies of several fungi. J Pharmacobiodyn, 6:12, 983-90
  345. Ukiya M, Akihisa T, Tokuda H, Hirano M, Oshikubo M, Nobukuni Y, Kimura Y, Tai T, Kondo S, Nishino H. Inhibition of tumor-promoting effects by poricoic acids G and H and other lanostane-type triterpenes and cytotoxic activity of poricoic acids A and G from Poria cocos. J Nat Prod. 2002 Apr;65(4):462-5.
  346. Unursaikhan S, Xu X, Zeng F, Zhang L.  Antitumor activities of O-sulfonated derivatives of (1-->3)-alpha-D-glucan from different Lentinus edodes.
    Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2006 Jan;70(1):38-46.
  347. van der Hem LG, 1995. Ling Zhi-8: studies of a new immunomodulating agent. Transplantation 60(5), 438-443
  348. Vetter J, 1995. Mineral and amino acid contents of edible, cultivated shii-take mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) Z Lebensm Unters Forsch 201(1), 17-19
  349. Wachtel-Galor S, Tomlinson B, Benzie IF.   Ganoderma lucidum ("Lingzhi"), a Chinese medicinal mushroom: biomarker responses
    in a controlled human supplementation study.  Br J Nutr. 2004 Feb;91(2):263-9.
  350. Wagner, H. & A. Proksch. 1995. Immunostimulatory Drugs of Fungi and Higher Plants. In: Economic and Medical Plant research. Acadenic Press, NY.
  351. Wan, F. and D. Huango. 1992. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions of artificial and fermentative Ganoderma sinensis (AFGS). Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 10: 619-622, 640.
  352. Wang, G. 1993. Antitumor active polyaccharides from the Chinese mushroom Songshan lingzhi, the fruiting body of Ganoderma tsugae. Bioscience, Biotech. and Biochem. 57: 894-900.
  353. Wang GL, 1996. The immunomodulatory effect of lentinan Yao Hsueh Hsueh Pao 31(2), 86-90
  354. Wang SM, et al. 1998. Effects of a water-soluble extract of Cordyceps sinensis on steroidogenesis and capsular morphology of lipid droplets in cultured rat adrenocortical cells. J Cell Biochem. Jun 15; 69(4): 483-489.
  355. Wang SY, 1997. The anti-tumor effect of Ganoderma lucidum is mediated by cytokines released from activated macrophages and T lymphocytes. Int J Cancer 70(6), 699-705 (1997)
  356. Wang LY, et al. 1993. [Studies on chemical constituents from solvent extracts of Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf]. Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih. Oct 1; 18(10): 613-614. Chinese.
  357. Wang YY, Khoo KH, Chen ST, Lin CC, Wong CH, Lin CH. Studies on the immuno-modulating and antitumor activities of Ganoderma lucidum (Reishi) polysaccharides: functional and proteomic analyses of a fucose-containing glycoprotein fraction responsible for the activities. Bioorg Med Chem. 2002 Apr;10(4):1057-62.
  358. Watanabe A, Kobayashi M, Hayashi S, Kodama D, Isoda K, Kondoh M, Kawase M, Tamesada M, Yagi K.  Protection against D-galactosamine-induced acute liver injury by oral administration of extracts from Lentinus edodes mycelia. Biol Pharm Bull. 2006 Aug;29(8):1651-4.
  359. Wasser SP, et al. 1999. Therapeutic effects of substances occurring in higher Basidiomycetes mushrooms: a modern perspective. Crit Rev Immunol. 1999;19(1):65-96. Review.
  360. Wasser SP. Medicinal mushrooms as a source of antitumor and immunomodulating polysaccharides. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2002 Nov;60(3):258-74. Review.
  361. Watson R.R. et al. 1986. Selenium & Vitamins A.C.E. Nutrients with Cancer Prevention Properties. J. Am Diet. Assoc. 86(4):505-10
  362. Wei L, et al. 1999. Treatment of complications due to peritoneal dialysis for chronic renal failure with traditional Chinese medicine. J Tradit Chin Med. Mar;19(1):3-9.
  363. Weigent D.A. & Blalock J.E. 1987. Interactions Between the Neuro Endocrine and Immune Systems; Common Hormones & Receptors. Immunol. Ref. 100:79-1
  364. Weng SC, Chou CJ, Lin LC, Tsai WJ, Kuo YC. Immunomodulatory functions of extracts from the Chinese medicinal fungus Cordyceps cicadae. J Ethnopharmacol. 2002 Nov;83(1-2):79-85.
  365. Willis WL, Isikhuemhen OS, Ibrahim SA.  Performance assessment of broiler chickens given mushroom extract alone or in combination with probiotics. Poult Sci. 2007 Sep;86(9):1856-60.
  366. Winkles JA, 1998. Serum- and polypeptide growth factor-inducible gene expression in mouse fibroblasts. Prog Nucleic Acid Res Mol Biol 58, 41-78.
  367. Wu MJ, Cheng TL, Cheng SY, Lian TW, Wang L, Chiou SY.   Immunomodulatory properties of Grifola frondosa in submerged culture.  J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Apr 19;54(8):2906-14.
  368. Won, SJ., Lee, SS., Ke, YH., Lin, MT. 1989 Enhancement of splenic NK cytotoxic activity by the extracts of ganoderma lucidum mycelium in mice. J Biomed Lab Sci 2*201-213.
  369. Wrenshall LE, et al. 1999. Modulation of macrophage and B cell function by glycosaminoglycans. J Leukoc Biol. Sep;66(3):391-400.
  370. Wu XJ, Hansen C.  Antioxidant capacity, phenolic content, and polysaccharide content of Lentinus edodes grown in whey permeate-based submerged culture. J Food Sci. 2012 Jan;73(1):M1-8.
  371. Xia, E. and Q. Chen. 198. Isolation, analysis and biological activities of the polysaccharide of Tremella Fuciformis. ACTA Mycol. Sin. 7:166-174.
  372. Xioa, L. 1987. Progress in the studies of Chinese drugs with immunological actions. Zhongchengyao Yanjiu. 3:25-27.
  373. Xiao PG, 1993. Immunological aspects of Chinese medicinal plants as antiageing drugs. J Ethnopharmacol 38(2-3), 167-17  Xie JT, Wang CZ, Wicks S, Yin JJ, Kong J, Li J, Li YC, Yuan CS.   Ganoderma lucidum extract inhibits proliferation of SW 480 human colorectal cancer cells.
    Exp Oncol. 2006 Mar;28(1):25-9.
  374. Xiong, H-Z. 1985. Clinical observations of 45 cases of chronic hepitis by the treatment with Tremella fuciformis polysaccgaride. Chin. f. Antibiot. 10:363-365.
  375. Xu RH, 1992. Effects of cordyceps sinensis on natural killer activity and colony formation of B16 melanoma. Chin Med J (Engl) 105(2), 97-101
  376. Xu WH, 1988. Water-soluble constituents of Cordyceps sinenses (Berk.) Sacc.--the nucleosides. Chung Yao Tung Pao 13(4), 34-36
  377. Xun C, Shen N, Li B, Zhang Y, Wang F, Yang Y, Shi X, Schafermyer K, Brown SA, Thompson JS. Radiation mitigation effect of cultured mushroom fungus Hirsutella Sinensis (CorImmune) isolated from a Chinese/Tibetan herbal preparation -Cordyceps Sinensis. Int J Radiat Biol. 2012 Feb;84(2):139-49.
  378. Xo, W. Z. et al. 1988. Effects of Cordyceps on monoamine oxidase and immunity. Sha J Trad Chinese Med 1: 48-49.
  379. Yamada, Y., H. Nanba, H. Kuroda, 1990. Antitumor effect of orally administered extracts from fruitbody of Grifola frondosa (Maitake). Chemotherapy (Tokyo) 38, 8: 790-796.
  380. Yamaguchi N, 1990. Augmentation of various immune reactivities of tumor-bearing hosts with an extract of Cordyceps sinensis. Biotherapy 2(3), 199-20.
  381. Yang BK, Kim DH, Jeong SC, Das S, Choi YS, Shin JS, Lee SC, Song CH. Hypoglycemic effect of a Lentinus edodes exo-polymer produced from a submerged mycelial culture. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002 May;66(5):937-42.
  382. Yang LY, Huang WJ, Hsieh HG, Lin CY. H1-A extracted from Cordyceps sinensis suppresses the proliferation of human mesangial cells and promotes apoptosis, probably by inhibiting the tyrosine phosphorylation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. J Lab Clin Med. 2003 Jan;141(1):74-83.
  383. Yang, W, et. al. 1985. Treatment of sexual hypofunction with Cordyceps sinensis. Jiangxi Zhongyiyao 5:46-47. From: Abstracts of Chinese Medicine 1:401.
  384. Yang, QY and Wang, MM. 1995. The effect of ganoderma lucidum extract against fatigue and endurance in the absence of oxygen. In Proc. Contributed. Symposium. 59A, B. 5th Intl Mycol. Cong., Buchanan, PK., Hseu, RS and Moncalvo JM., (eds), Taipei, p.101-113.
  385. Yao, PY., Gao, ZM., Fang, ST and Ke, L. 1993. Evaluation of the subsidiary effects of taking PSP orally on the chemotherapy of stomach cancer. In 1993 PSP Intl. Symposium, Yang QY and Kwok CY (eds), Fudan U. Press, Shanghai, p.269-70
  386. Yin Y, Fu W, Fu M, He G, Traore L.  The immune effects of edible fungus polysaccharides compounds in mice. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16 Suppl 1:258-60.
  387. Yokota, Masanorl. 1992. Koselkai Clinic, Tokyo, Japan, Observatory Trial at AntiObesfty Activity of Maitake Mushroom (Grifola frondosa), Anshin, July, pp. 202.
  388. Yoon SY, et al. 1994. Antimicrobial activity of Ganoderma lucidum extract alone and in combination with some antibiotics. Arch Pharm Res. Dec;17(6):438-42.
  389. Yoshida, J. 1989. Antitumor activity of an extract of Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. against murine tumor cell line. Japan J. Exper. Med. 59:157-160.
  390. Yoshino S, 1990. Effect of intrapleural and/or intraperitoneal lentinan therapy in carcinomatous pleuritis and peritonitis Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 17(8), 1588-159
  391. Yu SJ, 1996. Fu-Ling (Poria cocos), a Chinese herbal drug, modulates cytokine secretion by human peripheral blood monocytes. Int J Immunopharmacol 18(1), 37-4
  392. Yuen JW, Gohel MD.   Anticancer effects of Ganoderma lucidum: a review of scientific evidence. Nutr Cancer. 2005;53(1):11-7. Review.
  393. Zaidman BZ, Yassin M, Mahajna J, Wasser SP.   Medicinal mushroom modulators of molecular targets as cancer therapeutics.  Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2005 Jun;67(4):453-68. Epub 2005 Feb 23. Review.
  394. Zee-Cheng RK. 1992. Shi-quan-da-bu-tang (ten significant tonic decoction), SQT. A potent Chinese biological response modifier in cancer immunotherapy, potentiation and detoxification of anticancer drugs. Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. Nov 1; 14(9): 725-736. Review.
  395. Zhang GL, Wang YH, Ni W, Teng HL, Lin ZB. Hepatoprotective role of Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide against BCG-induced immune liver injury in mice. World J Gastroenterol. 2002 Aug;8(4):728-33.
  396. Zhang H, 1990. Immunopharmacological effect of Cordyceps sinensis Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 10(9), 570-571 (1990
  397. Zhang J, 1994. Antitumor active protein-containing glycans from the Chinese mushroom songshan lingzhi, Ganoderma tsugae mycelium. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 58(7), 1202-1205
  398. Zhang, L. and M. Yu, 1993. Influence of ling zhi on natural killer cells-Immunopharmacological study (5). From The research on Ganoderma lucidum (part one). Shanghai: Shanghai Medical University Press, pp. 246-253.
  399. Zhang L, Li X, Xu X, Zeng F.  Correlation between antitumor activity, molecular weight, and conformation of lentinan. Carbohydr Res. 2005 Jun 13;340(8):1515-21.
  400. Zhang LX, 1993. Effect of Japanese Ganoderma Lucidum on production of interleukin-2 from murine splenocytes Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 13(10), 613-615
  401. Zhang J, et al. 1994 Jul. Antitumor polysaccharides from a Chinese mushroom, "yuhuangmo," the fruiting body of Pleurotus citrinopileatus. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem.; 58(7): 1195-1201.
  402. Zhang M, Chiu LC, Cheung PC, Ooi VE.   Growth-inhibitory effects of a beta-glucan from the mycelium of Poria cocos on human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells: cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis induction.  Oncol Rep. 2006 Mar;15(3):637-43.
  403. Zhang P, Zhang L, Cheng S. Solution properties of an alpha-(1-->3)-D-glucan from Lentinus edodes and its sulfated derivatives. Carbohydr Res. 2002 Feb 5;337(2):155-60.
  404. Zhang P, Cheung PC. Evaluation of sulfated Lentinus edodes alpha-(1-->3)-D-glucan as a potential antitumor agent. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002 May;66(5):1052-6.
  405. Zheng R, Jie S, Hanchuan D, Moucheng W.   Characterization and immunomodulating activities of polysaccharide from Lentinus edodes.  Int Immunopharmacol. 2005 May;5(5):811-20. Epub 2004 Dec 2.
  406. Zhang Y, Mills GL, Nair MG. Cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant compounds from the mycelia of the edible mushroom Grifola frondosa. J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Dec 18;50(26):7581-5.
  407. Zhao CS, Yin WT, Wang JY, Zhang Y, Yu H, Cooper R, Smidt C, Zhu JS. CordyMax Cs-4 improves glucose metabolism and increases insulin sensitivity in normal rats. J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Jun;8(3):309-14.
  408. Zhao Y, 1991. Inhibitory effects of alcoholic extract of Cordyceps sinensis on abdominal aortic thrombus formation in rabbits. Chung Hua I Hsueh Tsa Chih (Taipei) 71(11), 612-615
  409. Zhao X, 1993. Cordyceps sinensis in protection of the kidney from cyclosporine A nephrotoxicity. Chung Hua I Hsueh Tsa Chih 73(7), 410-41
  410. Zhen F, 1992. Mechanisms and therapeutic effect of Cordyceps sinensis (CS) on aminoglycoside induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats. Chung Kuo Chung Hsi I Chieh Ho Tsa Chih 12(5), 288-29
  411. Zhou L, 1990. Short-term curative effect of cultured Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. Mycelia in chronic hepatitis B. Chung Kuo Chung Yao Tsa Chih 15(1), 53-55
  412. Zhou X, Lin J, Yin Y, Zhao J, Sun X, Tang K.   Ganodermataceae: natural products and their related pharmacological functions.  Am J Chin Med.  2007;35(4):559-74. Review.
  413. Zhu JS, et al. 1999. The scientific rediscovery of a precious ancient Chinese herbal regimen: Cordyceps sinensis: part II. J Altern Complement Med. 1998 Winter;4(4):429-57.
  414. Zhu M, et al. 1999. Triterpene antioxidants from ganoderma lucidum. Phytother Res. Sep;13(6):529-31.

Health, Herb, Mushrooms posters

Click here To Return to the Top of the Page

Medicinal Mushrooms Posters

A Few Books on Nutraceuticals and the Medicinal Properties of Mushrooms

  1. Arora, David. 2000. Medicinal Mushrooms: 24" X 36" Poster
  2. Chang, S.-t., J. Buswell & S-w. Chiu (eds). 1993. Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products. Proceedings of the First international Congress. Hong Kong: The Chinese University Press. 370 pg.
  3. Hobbs, C., 1995. Medicinal Mushrooms: an Exploration of Tradition, Healing and Culture. Botanica Press. 252 pg.
  4. Jones, K., 1995. Shiitake: The Healing Mushroom. Healing Arts Press.
  5. Jones, K., 1997. Cordyceps: Tonic Food of Ancient China. Sylvan Press.
  6. Lee, W. & H & J.A. Friedrich, 1997. Medicinal Benefits of Mushrooms. Keats Publishing.
  7. Mondoa M.D., E. & Kitei, M. 2001. Sugars That Heal. Ballantine Publishing. 288 pg.
  8. Robert Rogers. 2006 The Fungal Pharmacy: Medicinal Mushrooms of Western Canada.  Prairie Deva Press, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada; 2006. Paperback; 234 pages.
  9. Royse, D.J. (ed). 1996. Mushroom Biology and Mushroom Products. Proceedings of the Second International Congress. PennState Univ Press. 581 pg.
  10. Stamets, P. 1993. Growing Gourmet and Medicinal Mushrooms by Paul Stamets. Cultivation techniques and growth requirements for 25 types of mushrooms.
  11.  Shu-Ting Chang, Philip G Miles CRC Press 2004 ...Mushrooms: Cultivation, Nutritional Value, Medicinal Effect, and Environmental Impact, Second Edition.
  12. Wagner, H. and Proksch, A., 1985. Immunostimulatory Drugs of Fungi and Higher Plants, Ecorpomic and Medical Plant Research, Academic Press, New York.
  13. Wasser SP, Weis AL. Medicinal Mushrooms. Shiitake mushroom [Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Sing.]. Nevo E (editor). Haifa, Israel: Peledfus House Publishing; 1997: 95.

Click Here - for Mushrooms and Health - On Line Information

Some TCM and Modern Uses of Mushrooms*
Immune Enhancer
Blood Pressure
Lower Cholesterol
Increase Libido
Kidney Tonic
Asthma / Bronchial
Stress Reduction
Liver / Hepatitis

*This table has not been evaluated by a Health Professional or Practitioner. It is merely a casual summary the results suggested by the references listed above and does not constitute claims for any product.

Always consult a health care practitioner before taking any substance or supplement for medicinal purposes.

Click here To Return to the Top of the Page

A Positive Approach to Health & Wellness

GMHP Health Products

A Contemporary Source of Alleged Ancient Healing
Synergistic Formulations - Single Mushroom Extracts

Nutraceuticals for Good Nutrition from Natural Herbs and Organically Grown Mushrooms

Information contained within the above web site often alludes to the health and medicinal benefits of mushrooms suggested by recent scientific research and their use in Traditional Chinese Medicine; it does not constitute claims for any product. This information has not been evaluated by a Health Professional or Practitioner. Some of the information presented is based on the references listed above.

GMHP, P. O. Box 515, Graton, CA 95444

Fax: (707) 823-9091



Click here To Return to the Top of the Page

From the Preface... Alternative Medicine: Expanding Medical Horizons (NIH). 1994. Brian M. Berman, M.D.& David B. Larson, M.D., M.P.H., U.S Government Printing Office #017-040-00537-7.

"Unfortunately, this debate has failed to take into account the fact that the current health care crisis is primarily a crisis of chronic disease. Today almost 33 million Americans are functionally limited in their daily activities by chronic, debilitating conditions such as arthritis, allergies, pain, hypertension, cancer, depression, cardiovascular disease, and digestive problems. More than 9 million, or almost one-third, of these individuals have limitations so severe that they cannot work, attend school, or maintain a household. The U.S. Public Health Service (PHS) estimates that 70 percent of the current health care budget is spent on the treatment of these individuals; as the population grows older, such conditions will continue to consume an even larger proportion of national health care expenditures. Furthermore, the worldwide pandemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is threatening to completely overwhelm the health care delivery systems in certain areas of the United States."

"While the dominant system of health care in the United States---often called "conventional medicine," or biomedicine---is extremely effective for treating infectious diseases and traumatic injuries, it is often ill equipped to handle complex, multifaceted chronic conditions. One reason is that over the years, conventional medicine has increasingly emphasized finding a single "magic bullet" solution for each condition or disease it confronts. The reality is that many chronic conditions are not amenable to such one-dimensional solutions."

"Rather, such complex conditions require equally multifaceted treatment approaches. Furthermore, it is far less expensive to prevent them from occurring in the first place than to attempt to treat the symptoms and consequences with surgery and expensive drugs, which often offer only short-term solutions..."

"Thus, for health care reform truly to succeed at reducing costs and increasing access, disease prevention must be the ultimate focus of the primary health care system rather than disease treatment. This change in emphasis can be accomplished only by restructuring the current system so that people learn that they are far better off staying healthy than relying on high technology to rescue them from a lifetime of unhealthy living. In addition, to care adequately and cost-effectively for those who already have chronic illnesses, health care reform must incorporate multifaceted approaches to the treatment of these patients, approaches that control the symptoms while alleviating the underlying causes."

Click here To Return to the Top of the Page

References Compiled by: James Malachowski - Mycologist & Webmaster

Copyright © 1997-2021